Economics News with a Historical Perspective
December 7, 2016
The Econ Review features a historical perspective on economics news and opinions with daily updates. All original material is copyrighted. Off-site references open in new windows.
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U.S. Payroll Employment
In the News
The Phillips Curve
John Cochrane uses very similar Phillips Curve charts to review recent history and current issues.
Euro Roller Coaster
The wild ride continues.
The latest news and views.
President Ronald Reagan
1980. The Reagan tax cut of 1981 marked the emergence of supply-side economics in the Federal government. After a decade of shifting opinions about the merits of the Keynesian demand-side and the classical supply-side viewpoints, the latter became dominant. The 1981 tax cut was specifically oriented toward increasing motivation for production by cutting marginal tax rates.
Oil Shocks Hit Supply Side
In the 1970's, oil prices rocketed to levels completely out of line with historical experience. The underlying cause was use of crude oil prices and availability as political weapons after war in the Middle East. Economists scrambled to understand the implications of these events for macroeconomic models. Models had not previously incorporated energy as a factor of production because the price of energy was relatively constant and thus not useful in explaining fluctuations in the economy. This was certainly not the case in the 1970's.
President Nixon Imposes Wage and Price Controls
August 15, 1971. In a move widely applauded by the public and a fair number of (but by no means all) economists, President Nixon imposed wage and price controls. The 90 day freeze was unprecedented in peacetime, but such drastic measures were thought necessary. Inflation had been raging, exceeding 6% briefly in 1970 and persisting above 4% in 1971. By the prevailing historical standards, such inflation rates were thought to be completely intolerable.
The IS/LM Model
The IS/LM Model changes the focus from factors of production (i.e. the Classical Model) to demand for output. The equilibrating factor becomes the interest rate instead of the real wage rate. Most importantly, the model demonstrates that the economy can be in a stable equilibrium at less than full employment.
Additional models of interest are available at Classic Economic Models.
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